Is alfalfa and oat hay good for goats?

Goats are fascinating creatures with a unique digestive system that allows them to eat a variety of foods, including hay. But when it comes to feeding them hay, many goat owners find themselves wondering which type is best. Alfalfa and oat hay are two popular options, but the question remains: are they good for goats? In this blog post, we’ll take a deep dive into this topic and provide you with all the information you need.

But before we get into the nitty-gritty details, let’s start with a fun fact about goats. Did you know that they’re notoriously picky eaters? With their heightened sense of smell and taste, they’re quite selective about what goes into their bellies. So if you’re a goat owner, it’s crucial to be mindful of what you feed your furry friends.

Now back to alfalfa and oat hay – both are excellent sources of nutrition for goats. Packed with fiber, protein, and other essential nutrients, they can help your goats thrive. However, as with any food, there are some potential downsides to consider before adding these hays to your goat’s diet.

So, let’s dive in now.

What Is Alfalfa Hay?


If you’re looking for a nutritious and delicious feed option for your goats, then alfalfa hay is the way to go. This popular feed is well-known for its high nutritional content, which includes protein, fiber, and minerals like calcium and magnesium, all of which are essential for your goat’s growth and health.

Alfalfa hay is also an ideal feed for goats with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance since it’s low in sugar and starch. This type of hay is commonly used as a supplemental feed for lactating does and growing kids. It is also an excellent choice for goats being raised for meat production.

However, it’s important to note that alfalfa hay is not suitable as the sole source of roughage for goats since it can lead to digestive issues such as bloating and diarrhea. Pregnant or lactating goats should also avoid alfalfa hay since excessive calcium levels can cause urinary calculi, a potentially fatal condition.

When feeding your goats alfalfa hay, it’s crucial to select high-quality hay that’s free from molds and dust. Make sure your goats have access to fresh water at all times when consuming alfalfa hay.

Overview of Oat Hay

If you’re looking for a feed that will make your goats happy and healthy, oat hay is the way to go. Derived from the oat plant, oat hay is harvested before the grain fully matures, resulting in a soft, leafy hay with a sweet aroma that goats can’t resist.

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But it’s not just about taste – oat hay is also packed with nutrition. With a crude protein content of around 10-12%, it has more protein than other grass hays like timothy or Bermuda. It’s also high in fiber and energy, which promotes digestive health in goats and helps break down food particles in their rumen.

One of the unique benefits of oat hay is its low calcium content. This makes it an excellent option for goats that are prone to urinary calculi, or stones. However, it’s important to keep in mind that oat hay can be high in phosphorus, so it should be fed in moderation and balanced with other feeds that are lower in phosphorus.

Benefits of Alfalfa and Oat Hay for Goats

That’s why feeding them alfalfa and oat hay is an excellent choice. These two types of hay provide essential nutrients that promote good digestive health and help maintain a healthy weight for your goats.

One significant benefit of alfalfa and oat hay for goats is that they are both high in protein and fiber. Protein is crucial for building and repairing tissues in their bodies, while fiber is necessary for proper digestion. Alfalfa hay has up to 20% protein, making it an excellent source of this nutrient. Meanwhile, oat hay may have slightly less protein but is higher in fiber than alfalfa hay.

Moreover, feeding your goats with alfalfa and oat hay can help prevent digestive problems such as bloat and acidosis. Both types of hay are low in sugar and starch, substances that can cause these issues when consumed excessively.

In addition to providing essential nutrients, alfalfa and oat hay can help maintain a healthy weight for your goats. If your goats need to gain weight, feeding them alfalfa hay is ideal because it’s relatively high in calories. Conversely, oat hay is lower in calories than alfalfa hay, making it the better choice for overweight goats or those prone to gaining weight easily.

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Lastly, alfalfa and oat hay promote good digestive health in goats. The fiber content helps keep their digestive system functioning correctly, reducing the risk of constipation or diarrhea. Additionally, chewing hay helps keep their teeth and gums healthy.

Considerations When Feeding Alfalfa and Oat Hay to Goats

Alfalfa and oat hay are two popular choices among farmers and homesteaders, but before incorporating these hays into your goat’s diet, there are several considerations to keep in mind.

Firstly, alfalfa hay is high in protein and calcium, making it an excellent choice for pregnant or lactating does. However, goats who are not reproducing or producing milk may not require the additional nutrients. It’s crucial to note that too much protein in a goat’s diet can lead to urinary calculi, a painful condition where stones form in the urinary tract. Therefore, it’s essential to monitor your goat’s protein intake and adjust accordingly.

On the other hand, oat hay is lower in protein and calcium compared to alfalfa hay, making it a suitable choice for goats who do not require the extra nutrients. However, oat hay may be more challenging to source than other types of hay and may be more expensive.

Another vital consideration is the quality of the hay. Poor quality hay can contain mold or other harmful substances that can cause health problems in goats. Before feeding it to your goats, inspect the hay for mold, dust, and other contaminants to ensure that it’s free from any harmful substances.

Lastly, remember that hay should not be the sole component of your goat’s diet. Goats also need access to clean water, minerals, and a balanced feed ration. A balanced diet is crucial for maintaining good health and preventing nutritional deficiencies or imbalances.

Types of Goats That Benefit from Alfalfa and Oat Hay

After thorough research and analysis, I can confidently say that these two types of hay can be highly advantageous for a variety of goat breeds and ages.

Dairy goats, such as Nubians and Saanens, require a diet high in protein to support milk production. Alfalfa hay is an excellent source of protein, with levels ranging from 15-22%. In fact, incorporating alfalfa hay into their diet can lead to increased milk production and higher butterfat content. So, if you have a dairy goat, you may want to consider adding alfalfa hay to their diet.

Meat goats, such as Boers and Kikos, also require a high protein diet to support muscle growth and weight gain. Alfalfa hay can be a valuable component of their diet, especially during periods of rapid growth.

Young goats or kids have different nutritional needs than adult goats. They require higher levels of protein and energy to support growth and development. Alfalfa hay can provide the necessary nutrients for young goats to thrive.

Oat hay, on the other hand, is an excellent source of fiber for all types of goats. It is also low in protein, making it a perfect option for goats that are prone to urinary calculi (stones). Oat hay is also beneficial for older goats that may have dental issues or trouble chewing.

It is worth noting that hay should not be the sole component of a goat’s diet and should be supplemented with other feeds and minerals as needed. In addition, when choosing what to feed your goats, the quality of the hay should always be considered.

How to Choose Quality Alfalfa and Oat Hay for Goats

One crucial aspect of their diet is hay. Alfalfa and oat hay are two popular options, but how do you choose the best quality hay for your goats? Here are five factors to consider:


The first thing to look for when choosing hay for your goats is freshness. Fresh hay should be green in color, have a pleasant smell, and be free of mold or dust. Moldy hay can cause respiratory issues, while dusty hay can irritate their eyes and noses.

Nutrient content

Alfalfa hay is higher in protein and calcium, while oat hay is rich in fiber and energy. Depending on the nutritional needs of your goats, you may need to balance their diet accordingly. Pregnant or lactating goats, for example, may require more protein and calcium, while older goats may need more fiber.

Color and stem quality

The color and stem quality can also give you clues about the nutrient content of the hay. Bright green color and leafy stems indicate higher nutrient content in alfalfa hay, while light green or beige color with long, slender stems and plenty of seed heads are ideal for oat hay.

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It’s important to choose a reputable supplier who can provide information about the origin and quality of the hay. Inspect the hay before purchasing it to ensure it meets your standards. If possible, buy from a local farmer or supplier who can provide fresh hay that hasn’t been shipped long distances.


Proper storage is essential to maintain the quality of your alfalfa and oat hay. Store it in a dry, well-ventilated area to prevent moisture buildup and mold growth. Rotate your hay supply regularly to ensure that older or lower-quality hay is used before newer batches.

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In conclusion, alfalfa and oat hay are both fantastic choices for feeding your goats. Alfalfa is packed with protein and calcium, making it perfect for pregnant or lactating does and goats raised for meat production. Meanwhile, oat hay is high in fiber and energy, ideal for maintaining a healthy weight or preventing urinary calculi in goats prone to the condition.

To ensure that your goats receive the optimal nutrition they need, it’s crucial to balance their diet accordingly. Pick high-quality hay that’s free from dust and molds and store it correctly to maintain its quality.

Feeding your goats with alfalfa and oat hay can provide numerous benefits, such as promoting good digestive health, preventing bloat and acidosis, maintaining a healthy weight, and ensuring proper growth and development. However, remember that hay should not be the sole component of your goat’s diet; supplement it with other feeds and minerals as needed.

By understanding the benefits and drawbacks of alfalfa and oat hay for goats, you can make an informed decision about what’s best for your herd.

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